Exhibit 4.1




The following is a summary of our capital stock and provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws.  For more detailed information, please refer to our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed, or incorporated by reference, as exhibits to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.


Authorized Capital Stock


We are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of March 30, 2020, there were 52,140,699 shares of common stock outstanding.


Common Stock


The holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, including the election of directors. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors. The holders of common stock are entitled to any dividends that may be declared by the Board of Directors out of funds legally available for payment of dividends subject to the prior rights of holders of preferred stock and any contractual restrictions we have against the payment of dividends on common stock. We have not paid dividends on our common stock since inception and do not plan to pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and have no right to convert their common stock into any other securities.


Preferred Stock


We are authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of $0.001 par value “blank check” preferred stock with designations, rights and preferences as may be determined from time to time by our Board of Directors. The issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company without further action by shareholders and could adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of the holders of common stock. In certain circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock could depress the market price of the common stock.


Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws and Delaware Law


The following is a summary of certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) that may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing hostile takeovers or changes in control or management of the Company. Such provisions could deprive our shareholders of opportunities to realize a premium on their stock. At the same time, these provisions may have the effect of inducing any persons seeking to acquire or control us to negotiate terms acceptable to our Board.


Effects of authorized but unissued common stock and blank check preferred stock. One of the effects of the existence of authorized but unissued common stock and undesignated preferred stock may be to enable our to make more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby to protect the continuity of management. If, in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our Board were to determine that a takeover proposal was not in our best interest, such shares could be issued by our Board without shareholder approval in one or more transactions that might prevent or render more difficult or costly the completion of the takeover transaction by diluting the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent shareholder group, by putting a substantial voting block in institutional or other hands that might undertake to support the position of the incumbent Board, by effecting an acquisition that might complicate or preclude the takeover, or otherwise.




In addition, our Certificate of Incorporation grants our Board broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance also may adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of those holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.


No Cumulative Voting. Our Certificate of Incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors which would allow holders of less than a majority of the stock to elect some directors.


Vacancies. Our Bylaws provide that vacancies on the Board may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum.


Special Meeting of Shareholders. A special meeting of shareholders may be called by the Board or the holders of not less than 20 percent of all the shares entitled to vote at the meeting.


Amendments to Bylaws. Our Bylaws permit our Board and our shareholders to repeal or amend our Bylaws, and to adopt new Bylaws, in accordance with the DGCL.


Anti-takeover Effects of Delaware Law


We are subject to the “business combination” provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, such provisions prohibit a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in various “business combination” transactions such as a merger with any interested shareholder which includes, a shareholder owning 15% of a corporation’s outstanding voting securities, for a period of three years after the date in which the person became an interested shareholder, unless:


The transaction is approved by the corporation’s Board prior to the date the shareholder became an interested shareholder;
Upon closing of the transaction which resulted in the shareholder becoming an interested shareholder, the shareholder owned at least 85% of the shares of stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors of the corporation outstanding excluding those shares owned by persons who are both directors and officers and specified types of employee stock plans; or
On or after such date, the business combination is approved by the Board and at least 66 2/3% of outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested shareholder.


A Delaware corporation may opt out of Section 203 with either an express provision in its original Certificate of Incorporation or an amendment to its Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws approved by its shareholders. We have not opted out of this Statute. This Statute could prohibit, discourage or delay mergers or other takeover attempts to acquire us.


Transfer Agent and Registrar


Equity Stock Transfer serves as the registrar and transfer agent for our common stock.