Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”), and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for reporting of annual financial information.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cocrystal Pharma, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries: RFS Pharma, LLC, Cocrystal Discovery, Inc., Cocrystal Merger Sub, Inc., Baker Cummins Corp. and Biozone Laboratories, Inc. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
The Company operates in only one segment. Management uses cash flows as the primary measure to manage its business and does not segment its business for internal reporting or decision-making.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformance with U.S. GAAP requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The significant estimates in the Company’s consolidated financial statements relate to the valuation of equity awards and derivative liabilities, recoverability of deferred tax assets, estimated useful lives of fixed assets, and forecast assumptions used in the valuation of intangible assets and goodwill. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience, when available, and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis, and its actual results may differ from estimates made under different assumptions or conditions.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposited in accounts held at two U.S. financial institutions, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits of $250,000 for each institution accounts are held. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, our primary operating account held approximately $2,723,000 and $748,000, respectively, and our collateral account balance was $29,000 at a different institution. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant risks thereof.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s future results of operations involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Factors that could affect the Company’s future operating results and cause actual results to vary materially from expectations include, but are not limited to, rapid technological change, ability to obtain regulatory approvals, competition from currently available treatments and therapies, competition from larger companies, effective protection of proprietary technology, maintenance of strategic relationships, and dependence on key individuals.
Products developed by the Company will require clearances from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) and other international regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales in their respective markets. The Company’s products may not receive the necessary clearances and if they are denied clearance, clearance is delayed, or the Company is unable to maintain clearance, the Company’s business could be materially, adversely impacted.
Cash and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity from the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents, and the Company held no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same such amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in thousands):
Restricted cash represents amounts pledged as collateral for financing arrangements that are currently limited to the issuance of business credit cards. The restriction will end upon the conclusion of these financing arrangements.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, which consists of lab equipment (including lab equipment under capital lease), computer equipment, and office equipment, is recorded at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the underlying assets (three to five years) using the straight-line method.
Lease agreements entered into by the Company are evaluated to determine whether they are capital leases or operating leases. The Company considers a capital lease if it meets one of the following criteria: a.) Transfer of ownership. The lease transfers ownership of the property to the lessee by the end of the lease term. This criterion is met in situations in which the lease agreement provides for the transfer of title at or shortly after the end of the lease term in exchange for the payment of a nominal fee, for example, the minimum required by statutory regulation to transfer title. b.) Bargain purchase option. The lease contains a bargain purchase option. c.) Lease term. The lease term is equal to 75 percent or more of the estimated economic life of the leased property. d.) Minimum lease payments. The present value at the beginning of the lease term of the minimum lease payments, excluding that portion of the payments representing executory costs such as insurance, maintenance, and taxes to be paid by the lessor, including any profit thereon, equals or exceeds 90 percent of the excess of the fair value of the leased property to the lessor at lease inception over any related investment tax credit retained by the lessor and expected to be realized by the lessor.
In 2018, the Company entered into two new lease agreements for lab equipment which meet the criteria for capital leases due to transfer of ownership at lease-end for a nominal fee. Additionally, the Company had two operating leases for office facilities at year-end (see Note 14 – Commitments and Contingencies).
Fair Value Measurements
FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value under generally accepted accounting principles and enhances disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined under ASC 820 as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value under ASC 820 must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:
The Company categorizes its cash as Level 1 fair value measurements. The Company categorizes its warrants potentially settleable in cash as Level 3 fair value measurements. The warrants potentially settleable in cash are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and are being marked to fair value at each reporting date until they are completely settled or meet the requirements to be accounted for as component of stockholders’ equity. The warrants are valued using the Black-Scholes option pricing model as discussed in Note 10 – Warrants.
The following tables presents a summary of fair values of assets and liabilities that are re-measured at fair value at each balance sheet date presented as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and their placement within the fair value hierarchy as discussed above (in thousands):
The Company has not transferred any financial instruments into or out of Level 3 classification during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending Level 3 liabilities for is as follows (in thousands):
Goodwill and In-Process Research and Development
We account for business combinations using the acquisition method, recording the acquisition-date fair value of total consideration over the acquisition-date fair value of net assets acquired as goodwill. Acquisition-related costs, including banking, legal, accounting, valuation, and other similar costs, are expensed in the periods in which the costs are incurred and included in loss from operations in the consolidated financial statements. The results of operations of the acquired business are included in the consolidated financial statements from the acquisition date.
In November 2014, goodwill and intangible assets for in-process research and development were recorded in connection with the acquisition of RFS Pharma, and have represented a series of awarded patents, filed patent applications and an in-process research program acquired related to Hepatitis C compound development.
We evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill for impairment annually, as of November 30, or more frequently when events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. As part of the impairment evaluation, we may elect to perform an assessment of qualitative factors. If this qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset or the reporting unit (for goodwill) is less than its carrying value, we then would proceed with the quantitative impairment test to compare the fair value to the carrying value and record an impairment charge if the carrying value exceeds the fair value.
Fair value is typically estimated using an income approach based on the present value of future discounted cash flows. The significant estimates in the discounted cash flow model primarily include the discount rate, and rates of future revenue and expense growth and/or profitability of the acquired assets. In performing the impairment test, the Company considered, among other factors, the Company’s intention for future use of acquired assets, analyses of historical financial performance and estimates of future performance of Cocrystal’s product candidates.
In-process research and development assets are accounted for as indefinite-lived intangible assets and maintained on the balance sheet until either the underlying project is completed or the asset becomes impaired. If the project is completed, the carrying value of the related intangible assets are amortized to cost of sales over the remaining estimated life of the asset(s), beginning in the period in which the project is completed. If the intangible asset becomes impaired or the related project is abandoned, the carrying value of the underlying intangible asset is written down to its fair value and an impairment charge is recorded in the period in which the impairment occurs and included in operating expenses under research and development within the relative consolidated statement of operations.
The Company has a lead compound, CC-31244, for its Hepatitis C program, which was created at the Company’s labs in Bothell, Washington, and not part of the acquisition from RFS Pharma. In 2016, the Company initiated and completed a Phase 1A trial with compound CC-31244, and began a Phase 1B trial with CC-31244 that was completed in 2017. In 2018, the Company began a Phase 2A clinical trial with CC-31244 and recently released interim results in January 2019. In late 2018, the Company concluded that given the success of CC-31244 in clinical trials, the Hepatitis C program would move forward solely with CC-31244 without any of the compounds acquired from RFS Pharma. As part of this decision, the Company abandoned all remaining in process research and development intangible assets recognized by the Company and thereafter, terminated its license with Emory University on December 6, 2018 (see Note 11 – Licenses and Collaborations). This resulted in a $53,905,000 impairment in 2018. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, $0 and $53,905,000 was included as in process research and development on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, respectively.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had goodwill of $65,195,000 and determined the fair value of its reporting unit, under both the Company’s Nasdaq market capitalization and an income approach analysis; both methods exceeded the carrying value as of December 31, 2018; therefore, management did not consider goodwill to be impaired.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying value and estimated lives of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. The determinants used for this evaluation include management’s estimate of the asset’s ability to generate positive income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods as well as the strategic significance of the assets to the Company’s business objective. Should an impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount over the asset’s fair value.
Mortgage Note Receivable
As discussed in Note 4, the Company’s mortgage note receivable was collected in full during 2018.
The Company records its mortgage note receivable at the amount advanced to the borrower, which includes the stated principal amount and certain loan origination and commitment fees that are recognized over the term of the mortgage note. Interest income is accrued as earned over the term of the mortgage note. The Company evaluates the collectability of both interest and principal of the note to determine whether it is impaired. The note is considered impaired if, based on current information and events, the Company determines that it is probable that it would be unable to collect all amounts due according to the existing contractual terms. Upon determination that the note is impaired, the amount of loss is calculated by comparing the recorded investment to the value determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at the note’s effective interest rate or to the fair value of the Company’s interest in the underlying collateral, less the cost to sell.
Research and Development Expenses
All research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized based on the weight of available evidence, including expected future earnings. The Company recognizes an uncertain tax position in its financial statements when it concludes that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based solely on its technical merits. Only after a tax position passes the first step of recognition will measurement be required. Under the measurement step, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be realized upon effective settlement. This is determined on a cumulative probability basis. The full impact of any change in recognition or measurement is reflected in the period in which such change occurs. The Company elects to accrue any interest or penalties related to income taxes as part of its income tax expense.
The Company recognizes compensation expense using a fair value-based method for costs related to stock-based payments, including stock options. The fair value of options awarded to employees is measured on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period on a straight-line basis.
Use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions including expected volatility, expected term, and a risk-free interest rate. The Company estimates volatility using a blend of its own historical stock price volatility as well as that of market comparable entities since the Company’s common stock has limited trading history and limited observable volatility of its own. The expected term of the options is estimated by using the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Bulletin No. 107’s Simplified Method for Estimate Expected Term. The risk-free interest rate is estimated using comparable published federal funds rates.
Convertible Notes Payable
The Company accounts for convertible notes payable (when it has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments) in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. Accordingly, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes payable for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their earliest date of redemption. The Company determined that the embedded conversion options in its issued convertible notes payable do not meet the definition of a derivative liability.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments
We classify as equity any contracts that require physical settlement or net-share settlement or provide us a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in our own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) provided that such contracts are indexed to our own stock as defined in ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. We classify as assets or liabilities any contracts that require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside our control) or give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). We assess classification of our common stock purchase warrants and other freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The following are new FASB Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”) that have been adopted by the Company as of December 31, 2018:
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), which addresses the classification of eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. The required adoption of ASU 2016-15 in the first quarter of 2018 did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). The guidance requires that an explanation is included in the cash flow statement of the change in the total of (1) cash, (2) cash equivalents, and (3) restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. The ASU also clarifies that transfers between cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents should not be reported as cash flow activities and requires the nature of the restrictions on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents to be disclosed. We early adopted ASU 2016-18 at December 31, 2017 and disclosure revisions have been made for the years presented in the notes to consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, to eliminate the second step of the goodwill impairment test. ASU No. 2017-04 requires an entity to measure a goodwill impairment loss as the amount by which the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value. Additionally, an entity should include the income tax effects from any tax-deductible goodwill on the carrying value of the reporting unit when measuring a goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. We early adopted the provisions of ASU 2017-04 prospectively in the fourth quarter of 2018. The adoption of ASU 2017-04 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. ASU 2018-07 will be effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year, with early adoption permitted, provided the entity has also adopted ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company early adopted ASU 2018-07 in the fourth quarter of 2018, and there was no impact to stock compensation expense recorded in on our consolidated statements of operations for the years ended 2018 and 2017. Refer to Note 9 – Share Based Awards for explanation of the Company’s measurement of fair value for incentive awards issued. As required per the adoption criteria of ASU 2018-07, the Company has concurrently adopted ASC Topic 606, which had no impact on our consolidated financial statements and related footnote disclosures.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This ASU provides guidance on whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account. Accordingly, this amendment added unit of account guidance in Topic 606 when an entity is assessing whether the collaborative arrangement, or a part of the arrangement, is within the scope of Topic 606. In addition, the amendment provides certain guidance on presenting the collaborative arrangement transaction together with Topic 606. ASU 2018-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years and early adoption is permitted. This ASU is to be applied retrospectively to the date of initial application of Topic 606. The Company has early adopted ASU 2018-18, effective in the fourth quarter of 2018 with no impact on our consolidated financial statements and related footnote disclosures.
The following are new FASB Accounting Standards Updates that have not been adopted by the Company as of December 31, 2018, and contain detail regarding the effective dates:
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, ASU No. 2018-10 and ASU No. 2018-11 (collectively, “ASC 842”). Under this standard, which applies to both lessors and lessees, lessees will be required to recognize all leases (except for short-term leases) as a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease measured on a discounted basis, and as a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. Leases will be classified as either financing or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the consolidated financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. The Company will adopt ASC 842 effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition approach and intends to elect the package of practical expedients provided for under ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, has completed its review of all lease contracts that were in place as of December 31, 2018, and is finalizing the calculations of the right-of-use assets and related disclosures. Based upon the preliminary assessment of the Company’s leases, adoption of ASC 842 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations, its consolidated statements of cash flows or its opening equity as of January 1, 2019, the effective date. The Company estimates that adoption of the new standard will result in a gross-up on its consolidated balance sheets of approximately $830,000 relating to operating leases held for office space and laboratory facilities. Additionally, the Company will reclassify the carrying value of the capital leases on laboratory equipment of approximately $341,000, which was reported as part of property and equipment and capital lease obligations in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018, to right of use asset and finance lease liability, in accordance with ASC 842. Our conclusions are preliminary and subject to change as we finalize our analysis. Changes in our lease population or changes in incremental borrowing rates may alter these estimates. We will expand our consolidated financial statements disclosure upon adoption of the new standard.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. This ASU eliminates, adds and modifies certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurements as part of its disclosure framework project. The standard is effective for all entities for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing this ASU and has not yet determined the impact ASU 2018-13 may have on its consolidated financial statements.
Other recent authoritative guidance issued by the FASB (including technical corrections to the ASC), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) did not, or are not expected to, have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef