Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies


Basis of Presentation


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”), and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for reporting of annual financial information.


Principles of Consolidation


The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cocrystal Pharma, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries: Cocrystal Pharma Australia Pty, Ltd., Cocrystal Discovery, Inc., Cocrystal Merger Sub, Inc., Baker Cummins Corp. and Biozone Laboratories, Inc. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.




The Company operates in one segment. In accordance with the “Segment Reporting” Topic of the ASC, the Company’s chief operating decision makers have been identified as the Co-Chief Executive Officers, who review operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. Existing guidance, which is based on a management approach to segment reporting, establishes requirements to report selected segment information quarterly and to report annually entity-wide disclosures about products and services, major customers, and the countries in which the entity holds material assets and reports revenue. All material operating units qualify for aggregation under “Segment Reporting” due to their similar customer base and similarities in: economic characteristics; nature of products and services; and procurement, manufacturing and distribution processes. Since the Company operates in one segment, all financial information required by “Segment Reporting” can be found in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.


Use of Estimates


Preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformance with U.S. GAAP requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The significant estimates in the Company’s consolidated financial statements relate to the valuation of equity awards and derivative liabilities, recoverability of deferred tax assets, estimated useful lives of fixed assets, and forecast assumptions used in the impairment testing of goodwill. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience, when available, and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis, and its actual results may differ from estimates made under different assumptions or conditions.



Concentrations of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposited in accounts held at two U.S. financial institutions, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits of $250,000 for each institution accounts are held. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, our primary operating account held approximately $37,144,000 and $58,705,000, respectively, and our collateral account balance of $75,000 as of December 31, 2022 and other cash accounts are maintained at different institutions. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant risks thereof.


Risks and Uncertainties


The Company’s future results of operations involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Factors that could affect the Company’s future operating results and cause actual results to vary materially from expectations include, but are not limited to, rapid technological change, ability to obtain regulatory approvals, competition from currently available treatments and therapies, competition from larger companies, effective protection of proprietary technology, maintenance of strategic relationships, and dependence on key individuals.


Products developed by the Company will require clearances from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) and other international regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales in their respective markets. The Company’s products may not receive the necessary clearances and if they are denied clearance, clearance is delayed, or the Company is unable to maintain clearance, the Company’s business could be materially, adversely impacted.


Cash and Restricted Cash


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity from the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents, and the Company held no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.


The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same such amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in thousands):


    December 31,
    December 31,
Cash   $ 37,144     $ 58,705  
Restricted cash     75       50  
Total cash and restricted cash shown in the statements of cash flows   $ 37,219     $ 58,755  


Restricted cash represents amounts pledged as collateral for financing arrangements that are currently limited to the issuance of business credit cards. The restriction will end upon the conclusion of these financing arrangements.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment, which consists of lab equipment (including lab equipment under capital lease), computer equipment, and office equipment, is recorded at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the underlying assets (three to five years) using the straight-line method.


Fair Value Measurements


FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value under generally accepted accounting principles and enhances disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined under ASC 820 as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value under ASC 820 must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:


  Level 1 — quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.



  Level 2 — other significant observable inputs for the assets or liabilities through corroboration with market data at the measurement date.
  Level 3 — significant unobservable inputs that reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use to price the assets or liabilities at the measurement date.


The Company categorizes its cash and restricted cash as Level 1 fair value measurements. The Company categorizes its warrants potentially settleable in cash as Level 3 fair value measurements. The warrants potentially settleable in cash are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and are being marked to fair value at each reporting date until they are completely settled or meet the requirements to be accounted for as component of stockholders’ equity. The warrants are valued using the Black-Scholes option pricing model as discussed in Note 9 – Warrants.


At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the carrying amounts of financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, accounts receivable, other assets, and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term nature. The carrying values of notes payable approximate their fair values due to the fact that the interest rates on these obligations are based on prevailing market interest rates.


The Company has not transferred any financial instruments into or out of Level 3 classification during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending Level 3 liabilities for is as follows (in thousands):


    2022     2021  
    Fair Value Measurements Using
Significant Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
    2022     2021  
Balance, January 1,   $ 12     $ 61  
Change in fair value of warrants potentially settleable in cash (Note 9)     (12 )     (49 )
Balance at December 31,   $ 0     $ 12  




In November 2014, goodwill was recorded in connection with the acquisition of RFS Pharma.


We evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill for impairment annually, as of November 30, or more frequently when events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. As part of the impairment evaluation, we may elect to perform an assessment of qualitative factors. If this qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset or the reporting unit (for goodwill) is less than its carrying value, we then would proceed with the quantitative impairment test to compare the fair value to the carrying value and record an impairment charge if the carrying value exceeds the fair value.


Fair value is typically estimated using an income approach based on the present value of future discounted cash flows. The significant estimates in the discounted cash flow model primarily include the discount rate, and rates of future revenue and expense growth and/or profitability of the acquired assets. In performing an impairment test, the Company considers, among other factors, the Company’s intention for future use of acquired assets, analyses of historical financial performance and estimates of future performance of Cocrystal’s product candidates.


Long-Lived Assets


The Company regularly reviews the carrying value and estimated lives of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. The determinants used for this evaluation include management’s estimate of the asset’s ability to generate positive income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods as well as the strategic significance of the assets to the Company’s business objective. Should an impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount over the asset’s fair value.



Patent and Licensing Related Legal and Filing Costs


Due to the significant uncertainty associated with the successful development of one or more commercially viable products based on the Company’s research efforts and related patent applications, all patent-related legal and filing fees and licensing-related legal fees are charged to operations as incurred. Patent and licensing-related legal and filing costs were $506,000 and $533,000 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Patent and licensing related legal and filing costs are included in general and administrative costs in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.


Research and Development Expenses


Research and development costs consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company’s clinical products. All research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs are presented net of tax credits.


The Company’s Australian subsidiary is entitled to receive government assistance in the form of refundable and non-refundable research and development tax credits from the federal and provincial taxation authorities, based on qualifying expenditures incurred during the fiscal year. The refundable credits are from the provincial taxation authorities and are not dependent on its ongoing tax status or tax position and accordingly are not considered part of income taxes. The Company records refundable tax credits as a reduction of research and development expenses when the Company can reasonably estimate the amounts and it is more likely than not, they will be received. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded tax credits of $805,000 as a reduction of research and development expense, of which approximately $716,000 was recorded as tax credit receivable as of the year then ended.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized based on the weight of available evidence, including expected future earnings. The Company recognizes an uncertain tax position in its financial statements when it concludes that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based solely on its technical merits. Only after a tax position passes the first step of recognition will measurement be required. Under the measurement step, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be realized upon effective settlement. This is determined on a cumulative probability basis. The full impact of any change in recognition or measurement is reflected in the period in which such change occurs. The Company elects to accrue any interest or penalties related to income taxes as part of its income tax expense.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock-based compensation to officers, directors, and consultants for services rendered. Such issuances vest and expire according to terms established at the issuance date.


Stock-based payments to employees, directors, and for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees, which include grants of employee stock options, are recognized in the financial statements based on their grant date fair values in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. Stock option grants to employees, which are generally time vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and depending on the conditions associated with the vesting of the award, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line or graded basis over the vesting period. Recognition of compensation expense for non-employees is in the same period and manner as if the Company had paid cash for the services. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life, and future dividends. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.



Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments


We classify as equity any contracts that require physical settlement or net-share settlement or provide us a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in our own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) provided that such contracts are indexed to our own stock as defined in ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. We classify as assets or liabilities any contracts that require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside our control) or give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). We assess the classification of our common stock purchase warrants and other freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required.


Net Income (Loss) per Share


The Company accounts for and discloses net income (loss) per common share in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares that would have been outstanding during the period assuming the issuance of common stock for all potential dilutive common shares outstanding. Potential common shares consist of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants.


The following table sets forth the number of potential common shares excluded from the calculations of net loss per diluted share because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive (in thousands):

    2022     2021  
    December 31,  
    2022     2021  
Outstanding options to purchase common stock     350       206  
Warrants to purchase common stock     13       20  
Total     363       226  


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


The following are new FASB Accounting Standards Updates that have not been adopted by the Company as of December 31, 2022, and contain detail regarding the effective dates:


In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Credit Losses - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASC 326”). The standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets, including accounts and notes receivable. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model, under which companies will recognize allowances based on expected rather than incurred losses. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt — Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”). ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible debt by eliminating the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models. Upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, convertible debt proceeds, unless issued with a substantial premium or an embedded conversion feature that is not clearly and closely related to the host contract, will no longer be allocated between debt and equity components. This modification will reduce the issue discount and result in less non-cash interest expense in financial statements. ASU 2020-06 also updates the earnings per share calculation and requires entities to assume share settlement when the convertible debt can be settled in cash or shares. For contracts in an entity’s own equity, the type of contracts primarily affected by ASU 2020-06 are freestanding and embedded features that are accounted for as derivatives under the current guidance due to a failure to meet the settlement assessment by removing the requirements to (i) consider whether the contract would be settled in registered shares, (ii) consider whether collateral is required to be posted, and (iii) assess stockholder rights. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and only if adopted as of the beginning of such fiscal year. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 effective January 1, 2021. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.



Other recent authoritative guidance issued by the FASB (including technical corrections to the ASC), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) did not, or are not expected to, have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.