Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X set forth by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). They do not include all of the information and notes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for the entire fiscal year. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed on March 27, 2020 (“Annual Report”).
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cocrystal Pharma, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries: Cocrystal Discovery, Inc., Cocrystal Merger Sub, Inc., Baker Cummins Corp. and Biozone Laboratories, Inc. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
The Company operates in only one segment. Management uses cash flows as the primary measure to manage its business and does not segment its business for internal reporting or decision-making.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformance with U.S. GAAP requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The significant estimates in the Company’s consolidated financial statements relate to the valuation of equity awards and derivative liabilities, recoverability of deferred tax assets, estimated useful lives of fixed assets, and forecast assumptions used in the valuation of intangible assets and goodwill. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience, when available, and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. However, if future results are not consistent with our estimates and assumptions, including as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, then we may be exposed to an impairment charge, which could be material. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis, and its actual results may differ from estimates made under different assumptions or conditions.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposited in accounts held at two U.S. financial institutions, which may, at times, exceed federally insured limits of $250,000 for each institution accounts are held. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, our primary operating account held approximately $31,781,000 and $7,418,000, respectively, and our collateral account balance was $50,000 at a different institution. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant risks thereof.
As of September 30, 2020, 100% of our revenue and receivables are from one customer, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Fair Value Measurements
FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value under generally accepted accounting principles and enhances disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined under ASC 820 as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value under ASC 820 must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:
The Company categorizes its cash and restricted cash as Level 1 fair value measurements. The Company categorizes its warrants potentially settleable in cash as Level 2 fair value measurements. The warrants potentially settleable in cash are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and are being marked to fair value at each reporting date until they are completely settled or meet the requirements to be accounted for as component of stockholders’ equity. The warrants are valued using the Black-Scholes option pricing model as discussed in Note 7 – Warrants.
At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the carrying amounts of financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, accounts receivable, other assets, and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term nature. The carrying values of notes payable and lease liabilities approximate their fair values due to the fact that the interest rates on these obligations are based on prevailing market interest rates.
The Company’s derivative liabilities are considered Level 2 measurements.
In November 2014, goodwill was recorded in connection with the acquisition of RFS Pharma.
We evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill for impairment annually, as of November 30, or more frequently when events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. As part of the impairment evaluation, we may elect to perform an assessment of qualitative factors. If this qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset or the reporting unit (for goodwill) is less than its carrying value, we then would proceed with the quantitative impairment test to compare the fair value to the carrying value and record an impairment charge if the carrying value exceeds the fair value.
Fair value is typically estimated using an income approach based on the present value of future discounted cash flows. The significant estimates in the discounted cash flow model primarily include the discount rate, and rates of future revenue and expense growth and/or profitability of the acquired assets. In performing the impairment test, the Company considered, among other factors, the Company’s intention for future use of acquired assets, analyses of historical financial performance and estimates of future performance of Cocrystal’s product candidates.
At September 30, 2020, the Company had goodwill of $19,092,000. The Company previously completed its annual impairment test in November 2019, and at that time determined the fair value of its reporting unit, under both the Company’s Nasdaq market capitalization and an income approach analysis; both methods were less than the carrying value as of December 31, 2019; therefore, management considered goodwill to be impaired. This resulted in a $46,103,000 impairment in 2019. The Company plans to conduct its next annual impairment test in November 2020.
Based on management’s assessment on September 30, 2020, no further impairment of Goodwill is required.
The Company regularly reviews the carrying value and estimated lives of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, to determine whether indicators of impairment may exist which warrant adjustments to carrying values or estimated useful lives. The determinants used for this evaluation include management’s estimate of the asset’s ability to generate positive income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods as well as the strategic significance of the assets to the Company’s business objective. Should an impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess of the carrying amount over the asset’s fair value.
Research and Development Expenses
All research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
The Company recognizes revenue from research and development arrangements. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606–Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”), revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these goods and services.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This ASU provides guidance on whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account. Accordingly, this amendment added unit of account guidance in Topic 606 when an entity is assessing whether the collaborative arrangement, or a part of the arrangement, is within the scope of Topic 606. In addition, the amendment provides certain guidance on presenting the collaborative arrangement transaction together with Topic 606.
On January 2, 2019, the Company entered into an Exclusive License and Research Collaboration Agreement (the “Collaboration Agreement”) with Merck to discover and develop certain proprietary influenza A/B antiviral agents. Under the terms of the Collaboration Agreement, Merck will fund research and development for the program, including clinical development, and will be responsible for worldwide commercialization of any products derived from the collaboration.
Revenue recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 was $489,000 and $1,504,000 respectively, compared with $492,000 and $6,162,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, respectively. As of September 30, 2020, accounts receivable of $581,000 was due from Merck.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized based on the weight of available evidence, including expected future earnings. The Company recognizes an uncertain tax position in its financial statements when it concludes that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based solely on its technical merits. Only after a tax position passes the first step of recognition will measurement be required. Under the measurement step, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be realized upon effective settlement. This is determined on a cumulative probability basis. The full impact of any change in recognition or measurement is reflected in the period in which such change occurs. The Company elects to accrue any interest or penalties related to income taxes as part of its income tax expense.
As of September 30, 2020, the Company assessed its income tax expense based on its projected future taxable income for the year ended December 31, 2020 and therefore recorded no amount for income tax expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2020. In addition, the Company has significant deferred tax assets available to offset income tax expense due to net operating loss carry forwards which are currently subject to a full valuation allowance based on the Company’s assessment of future taxable income. Refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for more information.
As of June 30, 2020, the Company amended its franchise tax filed for 2018 period, which the result is a credit balance of $126,000. The Company recognized $51,000 as expense for the period from January 1, 2020 through September 30, 2020; the balance of $75,000 is recorded as prepaid expense to be amortized until September 30, 2021. Franchise taxes are included in the general and administrative expenses.
The Company recognizes compensation expense using a fair value-based method for costs related to stock-based payments, including stock options. The fair value of options awarded to employees is measured on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period on a straight-line basis.
Use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions including expected volatility, expected term, and a risk-free interest rate. The Company estimates volatility using a blend of its own historical stock price volatility as well as that of market comparable entities since the Company’s common stock has limited trading history and limited observable volatility of its own. The expected term of the options is estimated by using the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Bulletin No. 107’s Simplified Method for Estimating Expected Term. The risk-free interest rate is estimated using comparable published federal funds rates.
Share Issuance Costs
The Company accounts for direct and incremental costs related to the issuance of its capital stock as a reduction in the proceeds from such issuances. In the case, the Company incurs certain expenses related to the offering of equity security, the Company complies with the requirements of FASB 340-10-S99-1with regards to offering costs.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments
We classify as equity any contracts that require physical settlement or net-share settlement or provide us a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in our own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) provided that such contracts are indexed to our own stock as defined in ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. We classify as assets or liabilities any contracts that require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside our control) or give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). We assess classification of our common stock purchase warrants and other freestanding derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required.
Net Income (Loss) per Share
The Company accounts for and discloses net income (loss) per common share in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares that would have been outstanding during the period assuming the issuance of common stock for all potential dilutive common shares outstanding. Potential common shares consist of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants and the conversion of convertible notes payable.
The following table sets forth the number of potential common shares excluded from the calculations of net loss per diluted share because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive (in thousands):
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”) “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity.” ASU 2020-06 will simplify the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. Limiting the accounting models will result in fewer embedded conversion features being separately recognized from the host contract as compared with current GAAP. Convertible instruments that continue to be subject to separation models are (1) those with embedded conversion features that are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, that meet the definition of a derivative, and that do not qualify for a scope exception from derivative accounting and (2) convertible debt instruments issued with substantial premiums for which the premiums are recorded as paid-in capital. ASU 2020-06 also amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. ASU 2020-06 will be effective January 1, 2024, for the Company. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than January 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. Management is currently evaluating the effect of the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on the consolidated financial statements, but currently does not believe ASU 2020-06 will have a significant impact on the Company’s accounting for its convertible debt instruments as they are not considered indexed to the Company’s own stock. The effect will largely depend on the composition and terms of the financial instruments at the time of adoption.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Credit Losses - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASC 326”). The standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets, including accounts and notes receivables. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model, under which companies will recognize allowances based on expected rather than incurred losses. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Other recent authoritative guidance issued by the FASB (including technical corrections to the ASC), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) did not, or are not expected to, have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef